I found this article in Skin Inc magazine! I really think understanding what the term organic means helps us to make better product choices as consumers & Aestheticians! I have posted both parts for your convenience.
Deciphering Organic, Part 1
By: Leslie Lyon and Marilyn Patterson
Posted: January 29, 2010, from the February 2010 issue of Skin Inc. Magazine.
Find this article at:
Deciphering Organic, Part 1 | SkinInc.com
People desire a healthy environment rather than one that they need to be protected from, and because of this, there is a belief that beauty products featuring the words “natural” or “organic” are the best choices. Because of this, companies use these words as powerful, persuasive marketing tools to help sell their products. Until now, this marketing has been effective due to the lack of guidelines and enforcements—but things are changing.
The governments of the United States and Canada have defined the term organic as plant material that has been grown and harvested according to strict agricultural standards. Organic featured on a cosmetic or skin care label implies that a certain level of organic plant content is present in that product. However, the word natural has no strict regulatory definition, so it is widely used in a variety of industries, misleading consumers and making them think the products are safer than those without the natural reference. As the public becomes more attuned to the facts, a tremendous amount of pressure is placed on ingredient manufacturers and skin care formulators, because the more clearly defined organic status is very difficult—and expensive—to achieve.
Clearing up confusion
The big question is: Do spa professionals truly get what they want and expect when they purchase a skin care line that has been marketed as natural or organic?
Leslie Lyon, a spa consultant, has interviewed Marilyn Patterson, a cosmetic chemist and consultant for the development of natural and organic cosmetics, to help explain the safety and effectiveness of natural and organic ingredients.
Lyon: Many manufacturers make claims that their products are green, natural or organic, but who looks out for the spa professionals as they attempt to make safe choices?
Patterson: In Canada and the United States, the cosmetic industry is self-regulating, with guidelines provided by the governments. If a product has complaints against it, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in the United States and Health Canada in Canada will intervene, look into the complaints and only then will an unsafe product be removed from the market. Although manufacturers do test their products for safety before putting them on the market, cosmetics and skin care products are under the category of buyer beware. Like food, consumers must learn what is good for them and make their own choices.
Out of the three words—organic, green and natural—organic is the only one that is government regulated. There are many cosmetic and skin care lines with the word in product or company names, which can be misleading to consumers. A lawsuit by a leading organic soap company has been filed against many companies that are currently using the word organic as a marketing strategy. But the lawsuit has been taken one step further to try and eliminate any competition by also suing two certifying bodies: Organic and Sustainable Industry Standards (OASIS) and ECOCERT. These two organizations do not agree with the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) strict definition for organic when it is applied to cosmetics and skin care products. There currently is not a USDA regulation for cosmetics, only for food. The cosmetics industry has been guided by the food definition for awhile, which is why OASIS set out to develop guidelines specifically for cosmetics. There are differences between how foods, and cosmetics and skin care products are processed, which is why OASIS and ECOCERT disagree with the USDA.
Lyon: How do you define green?
Patterson: There is no global definition for green as it pertains to cosmetics and skin care product regulation, although it is often assumed that a green product adheres a variety of eco-friendly philosophies. The Canadian government started a certification body in 1988 called EcoLogo to define green, although it has become a much broader concept in the minds of spa professionals and their clients.
Lyon: What is greenwashing?
Patterson: Using green words, such as organic, natural, vitamins or botanicals, when they are present in concentrations too low to have any effect is a form of greenwashing. Another form is when the green ingredients are used with other questionable ingredients.
In regard to ingredients, if the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR), a U.S.-based organization that reviews and assesses the safety of cosmetic ingredients, has found a material to be safe at the levels used in cosmetics, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Personal Care Products Council (PCPC) consider them safe at the levels used. You can review specific ingredients and their CIR findings at www.cir-safety.org/findings.shtml.
Lyon: What is the purpose of organic ingredient lists?
Patterson: Each organic- and natural-certifying organization has its own list of allowed and banned ingredients. They can be difficult to access, but you can find out more about cosmetic ingredients from the certification organizations. It is a tedious process to go through the ingredient listings on a product label and compare them to those on the positive and negative lists, but this is the only way to ensure that the products you are interested in are truly natural, if they do not feature a reputable certification logo. The other option would be to hire a consultant to help you through this process.
Lyon: Can an ingredient be referred to by more than one name? This can often confuse the consumer.
Patterson: There is only one International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI) name assigned by the PCPC for a cosmetic ingredient that can be used on a product label, but not all companies follow the labeling regulations. In the United States, the regulation control is lax compared to Europe, where companies that mislabel cosmetics are frequently fined by enforcement organizations operated on a country-to-country basis. Some companies put the source of the ingredient in brackets after the INCI name, and this can be misleading and often is inaccurate. An example would be “sodium laureth sulfosuccinate (coconut).” This is also improper INCI labeling, for it to be proper, the information in the parentheses would have to be removed.
Lyon: Are there laws regarding product label claims?
Patterson: The FDA, FTC and Health Canada do have strict labeling requirements concerning claims, ingredient labeling, letter size and more, but the policing of these is minimal.
Lyon: What’s all the fuss about parabens? What are they and why are they so taboo?
Patterson: Parabens are a group of molecules that act as preservatives in cosmetic and skin care products. They have been grouped together by the media, but each type of paraben has different properties regarding solubility and shape/binding properties. Some forms can exist in nature; for example, blueberries contain natural parabens. Parabens hit the news when a study was released that found parabens in breast tumor tissue. The extrapolation was made that the parabens must have migrated into breast tissue from underarm deodorant or antiperspirants, and that they had a causal effect on the tumor formation. The study was small and not definitive, so there has been much controversy about it. Some parabens are very weakly binding to estrogen-binding sites in tissue. The worry is that they will exert an effect on breast tumor cells or any other estrogen-sensitive tissue to increase tumor growth. It could be that in the future, there may or may not be a scientific basis for this health scare. The data is not clear at the present time.
Much of the marketing of natural products is based on what they do not contain, although this practice is often frowned upon since it gives the impression that the materials are bad, stirring up hype and often giving a negative impression about safe materials. “Paraben-free” is one example. People have recognized that preservatives, fragrance and color ingredients have the highest potential for allergenicity, so marketing professionals target these types of ingredients, as well.
Lyon: What is biodynamic farming, and what is the difference between it and organic farming?
Patterson: Organic farming is concerned with the chemicals that are used to help grow crops, prepare fields and control pests. Only natural and environmentally safe chemicals can be used, and composted material plays a large factor in the preparation of the field. Biodynamic agriculture considers the farm to be a self-contained entity. There is a strong correlation between the crops, livestock, careful maintenance of the soil and recycling of nutrients in order to maintain an ongoing, pristine quality compost and astronomical sowing and planting calendar based on the phases of the moon.
Lyon: How do you decide if an ingredient can be used in a natural or organic skin care product?
Patterson: The guidelines for accreditation of ingredients for natural and organic cosmetic products or skin care lines are similar for all certifying bodies, with some variation on the percentage of organic content and allowed preservatives. To be used in a natural or organic cosmetic or skin care product, an ingredient often must comply with the following.
Renewable. Most plant material is renewable. Plants grown organically are preferred for environmental and safety reasons. Minerals may also be acceptable if they do not contain harmful contaminants, such as heavy metals. Petroleum, although natural, is usually changed in form when it is used in manufacturing, and it is not renewable. Animal products are allowed if no harm is done to the animal. There are some exceptions, such as carmine, red colorant that is derived from crushed insects, and chitin/chitosan that is derived from shrimp shells. It is important to note that in the European Union (EU), ingredients tested on animals are not allowed.
Safety. Safety testing is currently done on animals in some cases, but there is a huge effort in research and development to replace animal testing with alternatives. The safety testing of some materials is currently performed on animals when an alternative hasn’t been validated to find out how that material impacts an organism systemically. In many cases, these animal tests are required by the FDA because you can’t test on humans. A botanical oil or extract often has a long history of use, so it is deemed safe. If there is a chance of harmful impurities being present in an ingredient, than the ingredient is not allowed.
Synthetics. Synthetics are not allowed because most use petroleum-based starting molecules.
Biodegradability. Silicones do not biodegrade, so they are not allowed, and there are many surfactants and preservatives that are not allowed because they do not biodegrade quickly.
Processing. Many of the guidelines deal with harmful impurities that could be present during processing. A botanical oil that has been extracted with a petroleum solvent, such as hexane, is not allowed because some hexane could remain in the oil, while the same botanical oil that is cold-pressed is allowed. An example would be extra virgin olive oil, which is always cold-pressed, as opposed to a cheaper grade of olive oil that would probably have been solvent extracted. Many ingredients that start out with plant material are still not allowed because the process that they undergo creates toxic or carcinogenic side products, or the ingredient that it is reacted with is toxic or carcinogenic and will remain as a contaminant in the ingredient. North American governments do regulate the amount of toxic or carcinogenic impurities that are allowed to remain in an ingredient.
Meet your clients’ needs
For spa professionals to offer their clients the natural, organic or green cosmetic products that are being demanded, they must ensure that the these products have undergone a thorough evaluation in order to be certain that they will truly meet the needs of their clients. If there is a valid certification logo, the rest of the promotion and advertising budget can be devoted to a product’s unique features. In the very near future, you may need to explain to your clients why one product line without certification is better than one with certification, and your credibility will depend upon this. More information about how to determine this will be provided in Part 2 of this article, which will be published in the March 2010 issue of Skin Inc. magazine.
Deciphering Organic, Part 2
By: Leslie Lyon and Marilyn Patterson
Posted: February 24, 2010, from the March 2010 issue of Skin Inc. Magazine.
Find this article at:
Deciphering Organic, Part 2 | SkinInc.com
In Part 1 of this article, which ran in the February 2010 issue of Skin Inc. magazine, common questions about green, natural and organic product claims were addressed. Now, the path is cleared for deciding which degree of organic is suitable to you as a spa professional. The Five Degrees to Organic is an unofficial scale created by Marilyn Patterson, and as it approaches the fifth degree, ingredients begin to better meet established regulations and move from the designation of natural/organic to certified organic.
You must first figure out your own organic standards and determine the ingredients that you deem to be important as organic and those you consider to be safe enough with or without organic certification. This is acquired knowledge, and is the personal preference of each individual. Understanding these degrees will help to better equip spa professionals to make natural and organic product choices.
Degree #1: Natural or organic ingredients used for marketing only
An ingredient that delivers efficacy is rarely inexpensive. Companies selling low- to mid-priced cosmetics may prefer to spend their money on marketing rather than on expensive ingredients. Marketing claims must follow government guidelines, which differentiate between cosmetic and drug claims, but a lot of puffery is allowed. Therefore, it sometimes can be difficult for the professional to identify the truth in the advertising. A quick look at the ingredient list will give an educated professional an idea of where a product stands. If the natural or organic ingredient that is being marketed is near the bottom of the ingredient listing, than it may not be used at an efficacious level.
Degree #2: Natural or organic ingredients used for efficacy in a non-natural base
There are many natural and organic ingredients that have proven efficacy and have been found to be safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Health Canada, but are in a product with accompanying ingredients that do not fit the guidelines for natural and organic ingredients. Often, a botanical, or plant-based, active is chosen instead of a synthetic active because the product can then be described as natural in marketing claims. Spa professionals need to evaluate the ingredients listed on the label before making a decision. The natural or organic ingredient will have a Latin botanical name, and you would expect it to appear before the middle of the ingredient list. But at this degree, any other ingredient names will not fit the definition for acceptable natural or organic ingredients. The marketing information that goes with these products will mention efficacy studies if they have them. If not, you cannot be sure of the effect of the botanical, or if it is even used in an efficacious concentration.
Degree #3: Natural or organic ingredients, but the product is not certified
In North America, there is still some debate about which certification body is the most credible. As a result, many companies are following the European guidelines for ingredient choices, but are not going through the certification process. At this degree, all ingredients on the label should follow the guidelines for natural supporting and organic ingredients. The third degree is usually acceptable, but it can be difficult to assess which products fall into this category. Even if a botanical ingredient is used, it may have been extracted with a petroleum-based nonrenewable solvent, and the solvent will not be listed on the label. But it is in this third degree that you are most likely to find efficacious products at more reasonable prices.
Degree #4: Certified natural or organic
This category is where the debate begins. Many certifying bodies are stating that products are organic according to their regulations, but the percentage of organic botanicals required is below the 95% organic content line. These should be considered natural rather than organic. If a product is certified natural or organic, it will have a logo denoting this. A certified natural or organic cosmetic or skin care line must use ingredients that follow strict rules for safety and environmental protection. The main difference between Degree #3and Degree #4 is that a certified natural product must use certified organic botanicals when possible, and nonorganic botanicals must be 5% or less of the botanical content to qualify at Degree #4. The problem with noncertified organic botanicals is that pesticides or other harmful impurities may be present because the plants may not have been grown organically. Many efficacious botanical actives are excluded because they are not certified organic, and there are few organic actives available at this time. There is no way to tell if the botanical listed on the label has been grown without pesticides or herbicides unless the cosmetic has undergone a certification process.
In Europe, the Cosmetic Organic Standard (COSMOS) was one of the first European harmonized standards for organic personal care products. Many countries in Europe have individually developed standards for natural or organic cosmetic products, and in an effort to standardize these regulations, six of the European organic personal care regulatory bodies have formed COSMOS.
COSMOS requires 95% of agricultural ingredients to be organic and 20% of total product by weight, including water, to be organic. It does allow a maximum of 5% synthetic content. But this organization is still under development and will not have products certified under it for another year or two. The six founding member companies—BDIH from Germany, BIOFORUM from Belgium, COSMEBIO and ECOCERT from France, ICEA from Italy, and the Soil Association from the United Kingdom—still certify under their own logos and standards.
These certifying bodies have been classified as natural or organic rather than certified organic because the percentage of organic ingredients required is not as high as the food organic standard.
This statement should be qualified because the calculations for Degree #4 certifying bodies include water, while the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Organic Program (NOP) calculations exclude water. This difference means that the organic percentage of a product that has been certified by Degree #4 cannot be directly compared by a certifying body to a USDA-certified product. It is possible to make an efficacious cosmetic product in this category without the added expense of certification. This degree is a good choice for spa professionals because the work of verifying organic ingredients has already been completed. However, it is still important to contact the certifying body to ensure that this product is using the logo legally.
Degree #5: Certified organic
In the United States and Canada, this is the strictest certification of organic and until recently, only pertained to food. The following list is not exhaustive.
1. USDA Organic. In the United States, the most recognizable logo is USDA Organic. It is the strictest of organic standards because it really is a food standard, requiring at least 95% organic content in order to use the logo. It disallows synthetic preservatives and most chemical ingredient processing. There are four categories of organic under the USDA.
100% organic. Excluding water and salt, the product must contain only organically produced ingredients. Products may display the USDA organic seal, as well as the certifying agent’s name and address.
Organic. The product must contain at least 95% organically produced ingredients, excluding water and salt. Remaining product ingredients must consist of nonagricultural substances that are approved on the NOP list, or nonorganically produced agricultural products, not commercially available in organic form, also on the NOP list. Products may display the USDA organic seal and must display the certifying agent’s name and address.
Made with organic ingredients. Products contain at least 70% organic ingredients, and the product label can list up to three of the organic ingredients or “food” groups on the principal display panel. For example, body lotion made with at least 70% organic ingredients, excluding water and salt, and only organic herbs may be labeled either “body lotion made with organic lavender, rosemary and chamomile” or “body lotion made with organic herbs.” Products may not display the USDA organic seal and must display the certifying agent’s name and address.
Less than 70% organic ingredients. Products cannot use the term “organic” anywhere on the principal display panel. However, they may identify the specific ingredients, excluding water and salt, that are USDA-certified as being organically produced on the ingredients statement on the information panel. Products may not display the USDA organic seal and may not display a certifying agent’s name and address.
2. NSF. The National Science Foundation (NSF) provides one of the first U.S. organic standards to emerge after the USDA for cosmetic manufacturers. NSF requires a minimum of 70% of all ingredients, excluding water, to be organic in order to use its “Made With Organic” claim. NSF allows a broader array of preservatives and chemical processes than the USDA. Because this organization only started certifying cosmetics in 2009, there are few available products on the market under this certification at this time.
3. OASIS. OASIS is an industry association formed to certify personal care products specifically, in order to separate cosmetic standards from food standards. It requires 85% of all agricultural ingredients to be organic and allows a broader array of preservatives than the USDA. Because this organization started in 2008, there are few cosmetic products currently on the market that have this certification. There are two levels available: “Organic” features the OASIS logo and “Made with Organic” requires 70% organic ingredient content and does not present the logo. OASIS plans on increasing the required organic content as the industry develops more organic ingredients.
Degree #5 includes the most organic ingredients, but ingredient limitations make it difficult to formulate elegant and effective creams, or mild, pH-friendly cleansers. Oil serums and balms, including lip balms and hydrosol sprays, will be the most common kinds of products that carry these logos.
Spa professionals have many choices to make when deciding on a product line. Because cosmetic product and ingredient certifications and regulations are not unified, the process can become more confusing the deeper you delve into it. However, as a decision-maker, it will help if you consider the following points carefully.
* The ingredient listing on labels is very important; familiarize yourself with all of the details and accompanying claims.
* Seek out the designated ingredient expert at the cosmetic companies you are researching in order to compare your findings and learn even more.
* Confirm that there is a valid certification logo when the word “organic” is used to describe a product.
* If a product has a logo, find out about the certifying body that provides that logo and make sure it agrees with your own philosophy, and that it is indeed from a reputable source. Many companies create their own logos, that have no certifying bodies behind them.
* Look for valid proof of a product’s promise of efficacy.
By keeping your client’s needs in mind and your organic philosophy at heart, this scale may help you make the decision that is right for your business.